Everything in the world is made up of systems. A machine, a living organism, society as a whole is a system.
The system is a set of certain elements between which there is a functional connection. Thus, if the device is considered as a system, its individual nodes will be elements of this system. If the system Assembly plant, the individual process elements of the Assembly plant; if the system Assembly shop, its elements and Assembly units.
Depending on the needs of the analysis, the system can be distinguished subsystem –selected for certain characteristics of the system (element or group of elements), which has a specific purpose and is interconnected with the system (eg, car, system, engine – subsystem, parts – elements).
The concept of element, subsystem and system are interrelated. Each system has its own characteristics. Thus, an integral element of socio-economic systems, which include production and economic complexes, enterprises, associations, the national economy as a whole, there are groups of people. People are actively involved in the formation of these systems, affects the nature of their relationships and relationships, functioning and development.
Classification of systems
All systems are divided into classes according to certain characteristics:
(a) by origin, the systems are divided into natural and artificial.
Natural systems are created by nature itself (solar system, circulatory system).
Artificial systems are created to meet human needs (production, technological, technical, others).
Production systems are created for the production of certain products, they are characterized by changes that occur under the influence of various factors (scientific inventions, new technical processes, changes in the forms of organization of production, human influence, etc.). These changes are aimed at increasing the productivity of equipment and labor.
Technological systems are components of production systems. They are designed for processing raw materials into semi-finished or finished products.
b) The hierarchy of the system is divided into macro-and Microsystems.
Hierarchy is the arrangement of parts or elements of the whole in a certain order from the highest to the lowest. Under the hierarchy of the system understand its multilevel structure.
The concepts of “element” and “system” are relative, since one system can be a larger element, and the element of the system can be divided into components, that is, into systems of lower levels.
C) the complexity of the structure (the complexity of the system is determined by its structure, the number of elements, the amount of information, etc.).
d) For connections with the surrounding systems are divided into open, which have at least one input and output, closed and combined.