Rationing of production, its types and methods
Planning and effective organization of production in an industrial enterprise involves the existence of an appropriate regulatory framework, that is, a system of technical and economic norms and standards that regulate the use of material, labor, money resources, as well as the organization of the production process.
Norm this is the maximum permissible absolute value of consumption of raw materials, materials, fuel, energy, as well as labor costs for the production of a unit of product of appropriate quality in the planning period.
The standard characterizes the degree of use of tools and objects of labor, the cost of live labor, their consumption per unit volume, area, weight (for example, the utilization rate of equipment, output from 1m2 of production area; wage costs per 1 gram of net profit).
Each plant, shop, site have a certain range of standards that define its regulatory framework.
The system of technical and economic norms and standards should fully cover the production process, all its elements. The system includes the following main groups of norms and norms:
- live labor costs;
- tools and objects of labor;
- process organization;
- other rules and regulations.
Regulation of labor costs covers the definition of the standard time to perform the amount of work, maintenance standards of production equipment, vehicles, areas and other jobs.
Labor costs are set in the form of time norms per unit of production or work (operation, part, item), or in the form of production norms (hour, shift).
The norms of time regulate the time spent on the implementation of individual elements or the entire work, that is, represent the complexity. According to the complexity of the work and the qualification of the employee determine the category, the tariff rate, which are used to determine the wage rate for the operation, part or all work.
- Rationing of means of labor is divided into 2 parts :
- standards for equipment, that is the active part OF;
- the rules of the La buildings.
- Rationing of the active part of the OF occurs in groups:
- production equipment;
- means of transport;
- tools,tooling, production tools.
Standards of labor costs for their purposes are divided into the following groups:
1. raw materials, semi-finished products;
2. ancillary materials;
3. fuel and energy resources.
Distinguish between exploded and summary of consumption rates of material. Detailed standards are established for each part; erected and on the product by homogeneous types, materials and sizes of materials.